Can Pregnant Women Eat Bitter Melon, Does It Cause Miscarriage?

Can pregnant women eat bitter melon? In reality, incorporating fruits and vegetables into a pregnancy diet offers numerous significant health benefits to the mother. However, not all types of fruits and vegetables are safe for consumption during pregnancy. To answer the question of whether pregnant women can eat bitter melon, it is advisable to seek advice from nutrition experts. Here are some insights from to help address the query of whether pregnant women can consume bitter melon.

Bitter melon, also known as bitter gourd, is a type of fruit belonging to the gourd family. In Vietnamese cuisine, bitter melon is a common and diverse ingredient used in various traditional and modern dishes. With its distinctive bitter taste, bitter melon is often used as a primary or secondary ingredient to create unique and enticing dishes such as bitter melon soup, stir-fried bitter melon with eggs, stuffed bitter melon in tomato sauce, braised bitter melon with meat, stuffed tofu with vegetarian braised bitter melon, bitter melon and shredded pork salad, bitter melon preserves, bitter melon hot pot, and more.

Can Pregnant Women Eat Bitter Melon, Does It Cause Miscarriage?
Can Pregnant Women Eat Bitter Melon, Does It Cause Miscarriage?

Nutritional Components of Bitter Melon

Before answering the question of whether pregnant women can eat bitter melon, it’s essential to understand the nutritional components present in this fruit. According to the nutritional analysis by Nutrition Value, bitter melon contains notable nutrients, including:

– Carbohydrates and Fiber: 100 grams of bitter melon contain 3.7 grams of carbohydrates and 2.8 grams of fiber. These are essential nutrients to help the mother maintain good health throughout pregnancy.

– Vitamins: Bitter melon is a rich source of various vitamins, including vitamin A (417 IU per 100 grams), vitamin B6 (98 mcg per 100 grams), vitamin B9/folate (72 mcg per 100 grams), vitamin C (84 mcg per 100 grams), and vitamin K (1.685 mg per 100 grams). These nutrients support the comprehensive development of the baby and boost the mother’s immune system.

– Minerals: 100 grams of bitter melon contain 9 mg of calcium, 0.359 mg of iron, 31 mg of phosphorus, 0.168 mg of zinc, 20.2 mg of magnesium, among others. These minerals are crucial for the physical and cognitive development of the child and protect the mother from mineral deficiencies during pregnancy.

Specifically, the nutritional content in 100 grams of bitter melon includes:

Based on the statistics and analysis from Nutrition Value:

– Bitter melon is rich in fiber and low in calories, making it effective for weight management and preventing constipation and digestive issues during pregnancy.

– Bitter melon is packed with vitamins C, A, and folate. Vitamin C helps protect cells from damage and enhances iron absorption for expectant mothers. Vitamin A supports the development and function of the baby’s eyes, while folate safeguards the child from congenital defects related to the brain.

– Bitter melon contains a variety of essential minerals, including electrolytes and key minerals such as potassium, calcium, copper, iron, zinc, and magnesium in relatively high amounts, meeting 4-7% of the recommended daily nutritional intake.

Can Pregnant Women Eat Bitter Melon Safely?

During pregnancy, pregnant women CAN consume bitter melon, provided that they eat it at the right time (after the first three months), in the correct dosage (maximum of 2 fruits per week), and in the proper manner (removing the seeds). Consuming bitter melon incorrectly can pose several risks during pregnancy, including the potential for miscarriage due to the toxins found in bitter melon, especially in the seeds.

What Dangers Can Pregnant Women Face When Eating Bitter Melon?

The potential risks associated with improper consumption of bitter melon during pregnancy include poisoning, miscarriage, premature birth, indigestion, and diarrhea. Specifically:

Consuming excessive bitter melon can lead to poisoning.

Bitter melon contains high levels of alkaloid compounds (with high pH) such as quinine, saponic glycosides, and morodicine. These compounds are primarily found in the pulp of the bitter melon fruit and can irritate the stomach lining, leading to symptoms of food poisoning, including stomach pain, nausea, blurred vision, vomiting, redness of the face, diarrhea, and even miscarriage and stillbirth.

So, can pregnant women eat bitter melon during the first three months? The answer is NO because the fetus is still too small (weighing less than 15 grams) during this period and not yet equipped to defend against any potential risks from food.

Causes digestive issues related to the stomach

Research shows that the main bitter taste component in bitter melon (cucurbitacins) can lead to digestive disturbances such as abdominal pain, discomfort, nausea, low blood pressure, which may result in diarrhea and gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, bitter melon contains a high level of oxalic acid, a compound that interferes with the absorption of minerals like iron and calcium. Therefore, excessive consumption of bitter melon can lead to anemia due to iron deficiency, osteoporosis, and delayed fetal development.

Triggers sensitivities in some pregnant women

Can pregnant women eat bitter melon if they have a sensitive predisposition to allergies? The answer is NO because bitter melon contains histamine – a common allergen that can lead to symptoms such as rashes, itching, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, nausea, and vomiting. Furthermore, histamine toxicity can result in asthma, bronchospasm, eye inflammation, low blood pressure, heart palpitations, and vasodilation.

Miscarriage, Premature Birth, and Birth Defects

Improper consumption of bitter melon, such as consuming the seeds or unripe bitter melon, can increase the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and the birth of children with defects. Specifically:

– Bitter Melon Seeds: Vicine compounds in bitter melon seeds have the potential to cause headaches and uterine contractions. When the uterine contractions are abnormal, especially during the first three months of pregnancy, there is a high likelihood of miscarriage or premature birth.

– Unripe Bitter Melon: Studies clearly show that consuming juice from unripe bitter melon (green bitter melon) during pregnancy can increase the risk of abnormal development, birth defects, and deformities in newborns.

Therefore, pregnant women should consult their doctor regarding the timing and dosage of bitter melon consumption before adding this vegetable to their pregnancy diet.

These are the potential risks associated with improper consumption of bitter melon during pregnancy, along with answers to the question of whether pregnant women can eat bitter melon. Besides bitter melon, expectant mothers should also exercise caution with other vegetables that are not recommended or should be restricted during pregnancy, such as green papaya, nightshade vegetables, Vietnamese coriander, and salted cucumber. Only then can the mother’s pregnancy health be ensured and stable development be maintained.”

When Can Pregnant Women Eat Bitter Melon?

Pregnant women can start consuming bitter melon from the fourth month of pregnancy. During the first three months, the fetus undergoes crucial development, and eating bitter melon can pose a risk of miscarriage and other complications. In the subsequent two trimesters, mothers can incorporate bitter melon into their diet in recommended quantities to ensure adequate nutrition. Here’s a breakdown:

– First Trimester: During this phase, when morning sickness is common and the baby’s development begins, it’s best to completely avoid bitter melon to prevent digestive issues and miscarriage, protecting the baby from developmental delays.

– Second Trimester: Morning sickness tends to subside, and mothers can safely consume 1-2 servings of bitter melon per week to benefit from fiber, vitamin A, C, and folate.

– Third Trimester: Eating bitter melon during this stage may lead to premature birth, so it’s advisable to reduce consumption compared to the second trimester (1 serving per week) or even limit it to a minimum.

In summary, pregnant women can safely start consuming bitter melon from the second trimester if they have concerns about when it’s suitable.

How Should Pregnant Women Eat Bitter Melon Properly?

To consume bitter melon properly, pregnant women should adhere to these four nutritional principles:

– Moderation: Limit consumption to 1-2 servings of bitter melon per week, with each serving not exceeding 150 grams.

– Remove Seeds and Roots: Research has shown that extracts from the roots and seeds of bitter melon are unsafe for pregnant women. Therefore, mothers should remove the seeds to avoid compounds that may cause uterine contractions.

– Choose Well-Grown Bitter Melon: Pregnant women should never eat bitter melon that is immature (too small) or underripe, as these often contain harmful sap that can jeopardize pregnancy health.

– Consume Cooked Bitter Melon: Avoid eating raw or undercooked bitter melon to steer clear of potentially toxic compounds and harmful bacteria.

Additionally, pregnant women falling into any of the following categories should refrain from consuming bitter melon:

– Pregnant women with gestational diabetes: Studies have shown that compounds like charantin and vicine in bitter melon can lower blood sugar levels. Therefore, if you’re wondering whether pregnant women can eat bitter melon when you have a history of gestational diabetes, the answer is NO.

– Pregnant women who have never consumed bitter melon before pregnancy: If you’ve never eaten bitter melon before, you won’t know if you have an allergy to this fruit. Therefore, it’s best to avoid bitter melon during pregnancy to prevent any potential risks.

Benefits of Consuming Bitter Melon for Pregnant Women and the Fetus When Done Right

Despite containing potentially harmful toxins for the mother, it cannot be denied that bitter melon is rich in diverse and essential nutrients. When scientifically incorporated into the diet, this fruit can help mothers improve digestion and stimulate the baby’s development in several ways:

Folate Source

Bitter melon contains 11.79 mcg of folate per 100 g, equivalent to 2% of the recommended daily intake for pregnant women. Consuming bitter melon properly provides mothers with an abundant source of folate, ensuring the baby’s brain and nervous system development. Research shows that folate plays a vital role in reducing the risk of serious neural tube defects in the baby’s brain and spine by up to 79%.

High Fiber Content Reduces Constipation Symptoms

Bitter melon contains around 10% of the daily recommended fiber intake for pregnant women. Increased fiber intake can help prevent digestive disorders and constipation. Specifically, soluble fiber promotes beneficial gut bacteria and enhances immunity. At the same time, it limits the absorption of fats and aids in expelling waste from the body, helping mothers maintain a healthy state during pregnancy. So, can pregnant women eat bitter melon when experiencing constipation? The answer is YES.

Helps Control Gestational Diabetes

Bitter melon contains charatin and polypeptide-p, two compounds that function similarly to insulin in the human body, regulating blood sugar levels. Additionally, the fiber in bitter melon forms a barrier in the stomach, limiting sugar absorption. Therefore, bitter melon can effectively support the control of gestational diabetes.

Strong Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Can pregnant women consume bitter melon if they experience frequent fever due to infections? The answer is YES, as bitter melon contains a high amount of vitamin C. On average, 100 g of bitter melon can provide up to 89% of the daily recommended vitamin C intake for pregnant women.

Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant compound that strengthens immunity and protects cells from microbial threats. Besides vitamin C, bitter melon also contains other antioxidants such as carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. As a result, consuming bitter melon helps counteract oxidative stress, preventing complications such as preeclampsia and preterm birth.

Rich in Vitamins and Minerals

Is it safe for pregnant women to eat bitter melon when they feel they lack essential nutrients and feel weak? The answer is YES, as bitter melon provides a rich array of vitamins and minerals. Specifically, bitter melon contains a substantial amount of vitamin C (89.4 g/100 g), vitamin A (426 IU/100 g), folate (68 mcg/100 g), potassium (376 mg/100 g), zinc (0.4 mg/100 g), and iron (0.72 mg/100 g). These nutrients play various roles:

– Vitamin A stimulates cell growth, differentiation, and particularly benefits blood and nerve cells.

– Vitamin C and zinc enhance overall immunity.

– Potassium helps maintain electrolyte balance and prevents edema.

– Iron prevents anemia due to iron deficiency, ensuring the baby’s healthy development.

Regulates Digestive System

Is it safe for pregnant women to consume bitter melon when dealing with digestive problems? The answer is YES, as bitter melon is rich in fiber and anthraquinone, two compounds known for their potent laxative properties. Therefore, consuming bitter melon can make digestion easier, prevent bloating, indigestion, and, most notably, constipation. Additionally, anthraquinone compounds stimulate bowel motility, helping the body expel waste more efficiently and preventing conditions like acid reflux and heartburn.

Tips for Choosing Tasty and Safe Bitter Melon for Expecting Mothers

In addition to the question of whether pregnant women can eat bitter melon, selecting the right bitter melon is equally important. To choose tasty and safe bitter melon, expecting mothers should:

– Select from reputable vendors: Pregnant women should avoid purchasing bitter melon or other fruits and vegetables with an unclear or unsafe source or lacking proper certifications for hygiene and cultivation.

– Opt for fresh bitter melon: Only fresh produce retains high nutritional content and minimizes the risk of toxicity. To choose fresh bitter melon, mothers should look for specimens with a light green color, firm texture, and a slight give when pressed (neither too soft nor too hard).

– Consider the color: The darker the green color of bitter melon, the more bitter the taste. Therefore, expecting mothers should opt for those with a lighter green color to make them easier to consume and ensure safety.

– Choose organic or low-chemical options: If possible, mothers should opt for bitter melon that is certified organic, ensuring food safety.

Delicious Bitter Melon Dishes for Expecting Mothers

Here are some delicious bitter melon dishes that expecting mothers can incorporate into their daily meals. These dishes are easy to prepare and offer nutritional variety:

– Stuffed Bitter Melon Soup: The combination of bitter melon, pork, shiitake mushrooms, and wood ear fungus provides essential nutrients from meat and vegetables.

– Bitter Melon Stir-fried with Eggs: Bitter melon’s bitterness pairs well with the savory aroma of eggs, making a flavorful and nutritious meal.

– Steamed Bitter Melon with Eggs: This dish uses less oil while retaining a rich flavor and nutritional value.

– Bitter Melon Curry: The bold flavors of curry can help reduce the bitterness of bitter melon, making it more enjoyable. It’s especially suitable when served with hot, fluffy rice.

– Stir-fried Bitter Melon with Pork Belly: The sweetness of pork belly balances the bitterness of bitter melon, creating a dish that’s easy to consume and packed with nutrients.

Alternative Vegetables for Expecting Mothers Instead of Bitter Melon

Pregnant women, who may be more sensitive and vulnerable, can choose from a variety of alternative vegetables to replace bitter melon in their diet. These alternatives include:


Kale is a rich source of vitamin A, C, B6, calcium, fiber, and antioxidants. These nutrients help mothers maintain good health and support the baby’s bone development. Some of the benefits of kale include:

– Preventing anemia: Kale’s vitamin C content aids iron absorption, helping prevent anemia.

– Lowering blood sugar: Kale contains sulforaphane, an antioxidant compound that can combat insulin resistance and reduce blood sugar levels.

– Supporting fetal brain development: Folate and omega-3 fatty acids in kale are crucial for fetal brain and nervous system development.


Spinach is rich in vitamin A, C, E, and K, magnesium, folate, potassium, iron, and copper. It is also a source of omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and beneficial flavonoids. Similar to other green vegetables, spinach can help:

– Enhance fetal brain development: Folate and omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain development and the nervous system.

– Aid blood clotting: Vitamin K plays a vital role in reducing blood clot formation, promoting circulation.


Asparagus is known for its high folate, vitamin K, calcium, and fiber content. It can help mothers maintain good health throughout pregnancy, supporting comprehensive physical and mental development for the baby. Asparagus has minimal risk for expectant mothers, making it a safe and nutritious choice for supplementation.

In conclusion, bitter melon is a nutritious fruit, but it can be harmful if not consumed correctly. When wondering whether pregnant women can eat bitter melon, the answer is YES, but it should be eaten at the right time, in the right way, and in the recommended amounts. If you have any concerns or questions about your pregnancy diet, contact for timely answers and guidance.


No comments yet. Why don’t you start the discussion?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *